Cultures and Organisations, Software for the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and It Importance for Survival
by Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede
The revolutionary study of how the place where we grew up constrains the way we think, feel, and act, updated for today’s new realities.
Hofstede is, of course, the pioneer of culture studies in business and organisations. This book is a simpler and more accessible version of the more comprehensive – but also more difficult, ‘Culture’s Consequences’. Hofstede identifies 5 dimensions upon which cultures differ -
1. individual/collective programming
2. relation to authority
3. risk avoidance
4. masculine/feminine societies
5. short/long term orientation.
This book is based on cross-cultural research conducted in 70 countries for more than 30 years within the same company IBM that allowed Hofstede to establish the key differences in the way people think. His work marked a breakthrough in this field as he produced tables, maps and clusters to show cultures in relation to each other. Fully updated and rewritten for the 21st century, this edition:
• Reveals the unexamined rules by which people in different cultures think, feel, and act in business, family, schools, and political organisations
• Explores how national cultures differ in the key areas of inequality, collectivism versus individualism, assertiveness versus modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification
• Explains how organisational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can–sometimes–be managed
• Explains culture shock, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, differences in language and humor, and other aspects of intercultural dynamics This book is an essential reference guide for managers.
About the authors
Geert Hofstede, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of Organisational Anthropology and International Management at Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Gert Jan Hofstede, Ph.D., is a professor of Information Systems at Wageningen University and the son of Geert Hofstede