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Frames of Mind


Frames of Mind: The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences
by Howard E. Gadner

Howard Gardner’s ‘Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences’ is a fascinating book that helps to explain how and why different people seem to learn in different ways and possess different skills and talents.

Gardner explains that there is not one thing called intelligence, but rather several different types of intelligence that work together.

The idea of different kinds of intelligence is hardly new, as Gardner concedes, but that idea having been formed, it is rarely carried forward save by the most innovative of teachers and thinkers.

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

Intelligence type Intelligence description Related tasks,
activities or tests
Preferred learning style
1. Linguistic Words and language write a set of instructions; speak on a subject; edit a written piece or work; write a speech; commentate on an event; apply positive or negative ‘spin’ to a story Words and language
2. Logical – mathmatical Logical thinking Perform a mental calculation; create a process to measure something difficult; analyse how a machine works; create a process; devise a strategy to achieve an aim; assess the value of a business or a proposition Numbers and logic
3. Musical Musical ability Perform a musical piece; sing a song; review a musical work; coach someone to play a musical instrument; specify mood music for telephone systems and receptions Music, sounds, rhythm
4. Bodily – Kinesthetic Body movement control Juggle; demonstrate a sports technique; flip a beer-mat; create a mime to explain something; toss a pancake; fly a kite; coach workplace posture, assess work-station ergonomics Physical experience and movement, touch and feel
5. Spatial – Visual Visual and spatial perception Design a costume; interpret a painting; create a room layout; create a corporate logo; design a building; pack a suitcase or the boot of a car Pictures, shapes, images, 3D space